• Ben

Sources: Season 2, Episode 1: The Cost of Doing Business

As always, the goal at Thugs and Miracles is to be as transparent as possible and to spark a discussion about history. This podcast would be remiss to that end if it did not include a list of all of the sources used to make every episode. If you think I have missed anything, or if you have a recommendation for a source I haven't used yet, please feel free to reach out and let me know!

Without further ado, my source list for Season 2, Episode 1: The Cost of Doing Business.


Foundation for Medieval Geneology. “Franks, Merovingian Nobility.” 2018. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/FRANKSMaiordomi.htm

Hodgkin, Thomas. Italy and Her Invaders. London: Oxford University Press, 1892. https://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/Europe/Italy/_Texts/HODIHI/

Levine, Robert. France Before Charlemagne: A Translation from the Grandes Chroniques. Lampeter: Mellen, 1990. http://people.bu.edu/bobl/grch4+5.htm

Millar, Rupert. “Beer Saint’s Day: Arnold Of Soissons.” The Drinks Business. 2015. Accessed August 4, 2020. https://www.thedrinksbusiness.com/2015/08/beer-saints-day-arnold-of-soissons/

Millar, Rupert. “Beer Saint’s Day: Arnulf Of Metz.” The Drinks Business. 2016. Accessed August 4, 2020. https://www.thedrinksbusiness.com/2016/07/beer-saints-day-arnulf-of-metz/

Oman, Charles. Dark Ages 476-918. London: Rivingtons, 1908. https://books.google.com/books?id=PDkNAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

Renard, Margot. “The Faces of History: The Imagined Portraits of the Merovingian Kings at Versailles (1837-1842).” Journal of Historical Fictions, 1, no. 1 (2017): 65-88. http://historicalfictionsjournal.org/pdf/JHF%202017-065.pdf

Riche, Pierre. The Carolingians: A Family Who Forged Europe. Translated by Michael I. Allen. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993. Accessed August 4, 2020.


Schaefer, Francis. “St. Arnulf of Metz.” 1907. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved August 4, 2020 from New Advent. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01752b.htm

Sexson, Isak M. C. “Carolingian Propaganda: Kingship by the Hand of God.” Pacific University Oregon, 2000. https://www.pacificu.edu/sites/default/files/documents/Isak%20Sexson.pdf

Wilson, Emily. “The rise of the Carolingians or the decline of the Merovingians?” Access: History, 2, no. 1. (2003): 5-22. http://www.uq.edu.au/access_history/two-one/merovingians.pdf