• Ben

Sources, Sources, Sources: A Running List

As always, the goal at Thugs and Miracles is to be as transparent as possible and to spark a discussion about history. This podcast would be remiss if it did not include a list of all of the sources used to make every episode. With that in mind, I have compiled a running list of all of my sources and will update it continually. If you think I have missed anything or if you have a recommendation for a source I haven't used yet, please feel free to reach out and let me know!


Just in case you wondered about the academic rigor put into a podcast, well, I can tell you that the current source list is over 10 pages long, single spaced, and at last count was 2,149 words. As a frame of reference, at the speed I normally speak on the show, it would take me over 12.5 minutes just to read the T+M bibliography to you.


So, without further ado, my source list for... everything. Enjoy.

Bachrach, Bernard S. The Anatomy of a Little War: A Diplomatic and Military History of the Gundovald Affair (568-586). Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994.


Barbieri, Fabio P. History of Britain, 407-597 (version Faces of Arthur). Accessed February 3, 2020. http://www.facesofarthur.org.uk/fabio/contents.htm


Bede, The Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, translator not clearly indicated (but seems to be L.C. Jane's 1903 Temple Classics translation), introduction by Vida D. Scudder. London: J.M. Dent; New York E.P. Dutton, 1910.


Bentonian. “Civil war!” The Eighth Century and All That | The Life and Times of Pepin le Bref. Accessed May 21, 2021. https://www.8thcentury.com/civil-war/


Berardino, Angelo Di, ed. Encyclopedia of Ancient Christianity. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2014. https://www.academia.edu/Documents/in/Encylopedia_of_Early_Christianity


Bertelli, Sergio. The King's Body: The Sacred Rituals of Power In Medieval and Early Modern Europe. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001. https://books.google.com/books?id=u8KHqA_dmmAC&pg=PT232#v=onepage&q&f=false


“Biography of Saint Cloud.” Diocese of Saint Cloud. Accessed January 9, 2020. http://stcdio.org/about/biography-saint-cloud/


Bitel, Lisa. “Genovefa, Saint: Monastic Matrix.” Saint Genovefa. The Ohio State University, College of Arts and Sciences. Accessed December 21, 2019. http://monasticmatrix.osu.edu/vitae/genovefa-saint


Blockmans, Wim, and P. Hoppenbrouwers. Introduction to Medieval Europe, 300-1550. London: Routledge, 2007.


Bunson, Matthew. Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages. New York: Facts On File, 1995.


Bury, J. B., ed. The Cambridge Medieval History: Germany and the Western Empire. Vol. III. New York, NY: Macmillan, 1922. https://play.google.com/books/reader?id=NrBmAAAAMAAJ&hl=en&pg=GBS.PP1


Bury, J. B. "Justa Grata Honoria." Journal of Roman Studies 9 (1919): 1-13. Accessed July 16, 2019. doi:10.2307/295986. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Journals/JRS/9/Justa_Grata_Honoria*.html


Canning, J., 1996. A History of Medieval Political Thought. London: Routledge. https://www.academia.edu/20282318/A_History_of_Medieval_Political_Thought_300_1450


“Canterbury Cathedral, St Augustine's Abbey, and St Martin's Church.” UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Accessed March 12, 2020. https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/496/


Catholic Online. “St. Clotilde - Saints & Angels.” Catholic Online. Accessed December 17, 2019. https://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=886


Chemise of St Balthild.” Feminae: Medieval Women and Gender Index. Accessed February 10, 2021. https://inpress.lib.uiowa.edu/feminae/DetailsPage.aspx?Feminae_ID=39302


Christie, Neil. The Lombards: The Ancient Longobards. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd, 1995.


"Chronicle of Fredegar." Chronicle of Fredegar - Howling Pixel. Accessed July 15, 2019. https://howlingpixel.com/i-en/Chronicle_of_Fredegar


Cochet, Jean Benoît Désiré. Le Tombeau De Childéric 1er, Roi Des Francs, Restitué À L'aide De L'archéologie Et Des Découvertes Récentes. Paris, 1859. https://play.google.com/books/reader?id=QKY9AAAAcAAJ&pg=GBS.PR9


Corradini, Richard, Maximilian Diesenberger, and Helmut Reimitz, eds. The Construction of Communities in the Early Middle Ages: Texts, Resources and Artefacts. Leiden: Brill, 2003. https://books.google.com/books?id=e6sfGt10UzcC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false


“Councils of Orléans.” Catholic Encyclopedia: Councils of Orleans. Accessed December 12, 2019. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11318a.htm


Craft, Brandon Taylor. “Queenship, Intrigue and Blood-Feud: Deciphering the Causes of the Merovingian Civil Wars, 561-613.” LSU Digital Commons, 2013. https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/gradschool_theses/3931


Crisp, Ryan Patrick. “Marriage and Alliance in the Merovingian Kingdoms, 481-639.” Academia.edu, 2003. https://www.academia.edu/586006/Marriage_and_Alliance_in_the_Merovingian_Kingdoms_481-639


Daly, William M. "Clovis: How Barbaric, How Pagan?" Speculum 69, no. 3 (1994): 619-64. doi:10.2307/3040846


Davis, William Stearns. Readings in Ancient History Illustrative Extracts from the Sources. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Accessed October 5, 2019. https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/source/496clovis.asp


Debucourt, Philibert Louis. Saint Genevieve, 1775–1832. The Art Institute of Chicago.


de Jong, Mayke. “The Empire that was always Decaying: The Carolingians (800-888).” Medieval Worlds 2015.2 (2015): 6-25. 10.1553/medievalworlds_no2_2015s6 https://www.academia.edu/19574643/The_Empire_that_was_always_Decaying_The_Carolingians_800_888_


Ditchburn, David, and Angus MacKay, eds. Atlas of Medieval Europe. London and New York: Routledge, 2002. https://www.academia.edu/37288126/Atlas_of_Medieval_Europe


Eason, James. “A Note on Childeric's Bees.” University of Chicago, n.d. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/hydrionoframes/bees.html


"Ebroïn." Encyclopaedia Britannica. Accessed February 17, 2021. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Ebroin


“European Kingdoms - Celts of Armorica.” Kingdoms of Armorican Celts - Brittany / High Kings. Kessler Associates, January 2, 1999. https://www.historyfiles.co.uk/KingListsBritain/ArmoricaHighKings.htm


Fortunatus, Venantius. Venantius Fortunatus: Personal and Political Poems. Translated by Judith W. George. Liverpool, UK: Liverpool University Press, 1995. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=fbRVx2cbvcUC&pg


Fossier, Robert. The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Middle Ages. Translated by Janet Sondheimer. Vol. I. Cambridge: University Press, 1989.


Foundation for Medieval Geneology. “Franks, Merovingian Nobility.” 2018. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/FRANKSMaiordomi.htm


Fouracre, Paul, ed. The New Cambridge Medieval History: C.500-C.700. Vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. https://books.google.com/books?id=JcmwuoTsKO0C&pg


Fouracre, Paul, and Richard A. Gerberding. Late Merovingian France: History and Hagiography, 640-720. Manchester University Press, 1996.


Frédégaire. Chronique de Frédégaire. Edited by François Dominique Fournier. Remacle.org. Accessed May 21, 2021. http://remacle.org/bloodwolf/historiens/gregoire/fregedaire.htm#V


Freedman, Paul. "Barbarian Kingdoms." Lecture. Fall 2011. Accessed June 12, 2019. https://oyc.yale.edu/history/hist-210


Freedman, Paul. "Clovis and the Franks." Lecture. Fall 2011. Accessed September 26, 2019. https://oyc.yale.edu/history/hist-210


Geary, Patrick J. Before France and Germany: The Creation and Transformation of the Merovingian World. Oxford: University Press, 1988.


Ghezzi, Bert. “Saint Genevieve.” Saint Genevieve. Loyola Press, August 29, 2017. https://www.loyolapress.com/our-catholic-faith/saints/saints-stories-for-all-ages/saint-genevieve


Gordon, Richard. "Battle of Chalons: Attila the Hun Versus Flavius Aetius." HistoryNet. August 09, 2016. Accessed July 16, 2019. https://www.historynet.com/battle-of-chalons-attila-the-hun-versus-flavius-aetius.htm. Article originally published in the Dec 2003 issue of Military History.


Greek, Eric E. “The Myth of Charles Martel: Why the Islamic Caliphate Ceased Military Operations in Western Europe After the Battle of Tours.” Harvard Extension School, 2019. http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:42004241


Greenwood, Thomas. The First Book of the History of the Germans: Barbaric Period. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, 1836. https://play.google.com/store/books/details?id=WroF67uAY8kC&rdid=book-WroF67uAY8kC&rdot=1


Gregory Bishop of Tours. History of the Franks. Translated by Ernest Brehaut. New York: Columbia University Press, 1916. Accessed June 7, 2019. https://archive.org/details/historyoffranks01greg/page/n7


Gregory Bishop of Tours. The History of the Franks. Translated by O. M. Dalton. Vol. 1. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1927.


Gregory Bishop of Tours. "Medieval Sourcebook: History of the Franks.” Internet History Sourcebooks Project. Accessed December 11, 2019. https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/basis/gregory-hist.asp


Guizot, François. A Popular History of France from the Earliest Times. Val Richer, 1869. https://www.gutenberg.org/files/11951/11951-h/11951-h.htm


Gustafson, Brianna M. “Miraculis Virgo: The Abbey of Sainte-Geneviève and the Cult of Geneviève in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries.” Journal of the Western Society for French History 38 (2010). https://quod.lib.umich.edu/w/wsfh/0642292.0038.001


Halsall, Guy. Barbarian Migrations and the Roman West, 376-568. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014


Hen, Yitzhak. Culture and Religion in Merovingian Gaul, A.D. 481-751. Leiden, The Netherlands: E.J. Brill, 1995. Accessed June 2, 2019. https://books.google.com/books?id=_fAl6ACLP7oC&pg=PA1&hl=fr&source=gbs_toc_r&cad=4#v=onepage&q&f=false


Hen, Yitzhak. Roman Barbarians: The Royal Court and Cultural Patronage in Early Medieval Europe. Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.


Hickman, Kennedy. "Hunnic Invasions: The Battle of Chalons." ThoughtCo. May 25, 2019. Accessed July 13, 2019. http://www.thoughtco.com/hunnic-invasions-battle-of-chalons-2360875


Hindley, Thomas. “Clovis et les Mérovingiens, 2018.” Academia.edu. Accessed September 25, 2019. https://www.academia.edu/36185545/Clovis_et_les_M%C3%A9rovingiens_2018


Hinds, Allen Banks. A Garner of Saints (version Saint Genevieve), 1900. https://catholicsaints.info/a-garner-of-saints-saint-genevieve/


Hodgkin, Thomas. Italy and Her Invaders. London: Oxford University Press, 1892. https://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/Europe/Italy/_Texts/HODIHI/


Holmes, George, ed. The Oxford Illustrated History of Medieval Europe. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.


Huppert, George. “The Trojan Franks and Their Critics.” Studies in the Renaissance 12 (1965): 227-241. Accessed May 21, 2021. doi:10.2307/2857076. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2857076


James, Edward. The Franks. Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell, 1988.


Jordanes. "Medieval Sourcebook: The Battle of Chalôns, 451 CE." Internet History Sourcebooks Project. Accessed July 17, 2019. https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/source/451jordanes38.asp


Karras, Ruth Mazo. “The History of Marriage and the Myth of Friedelehe.” Early Medieval Europe 14, no. 2 (2006): 119–51. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0254.2006.00177.x


Krieger, Madeleine P. “Brunhild in Profile: Defining the Limits of Queenship.” Academia.edu. Accessed March 25, 2020. https://www.academia.edu/38184916/Brunhild_in_Profile-_Defining_the_Limits_of_Queenship.pdf


Lanteri, Roger-Xavier. Brunehilde: La Première Reine De France. Paris: Perrin, 1995.


Lessman, Thomas A. "Odoacer's Kingdom in 480 AD." Talessman's Atlas. October 2, 2008. Accessed June 15, 2019. http://worldhistorymaps.info/images/Odoacer_480ad.jpg


Levine, Robert. France Before Charlemagne: A Translation from the Grandes Chroniques. Lampeter: Mellen, 1990. http://people.bu.edu/bobl/grch4+5.htm


Livius. "The Great Find and Great Loss of Childeric’s Treasure." The History Blog (blog), July 6, 2015. Accessed July 16, 2019. http://www.thehistoryblog.com/archives/37323


Longo, Mark S. “Scheming Princess Behind Empire's Fall.” CNN. Cable News Network, October 22, 2007. http://www.cnn.com/2007/LIVING/wayoflife/10/19/mf.princess.rome/index.html


Lumen Learning. "The Germanic Tribes." Boundless World History. Accessed June 21, 2019. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-worldhistory/chapter/the-germanic-tribes/


MacGeorge, Penny. Late Roman Warlords. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2007.

https://books.google.com/books?id=qJt_mPtdo7YC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:9780199252442


McGregor, James H. S. Paris from the Ground Up. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press, 2010. http://www.indiana.edu/~paris10/ParisOSS/Day_1_Early_Paris/Ancient_Early_Medieval/McGregor_Early_MIddle_Ages.html. This book section is found on Indiana University's Transition to the Early Middle Ages website highlighting Paris in the early Middle Ages.


Mézeray, François Eudes De. A General Chronological History of France: Beginning before the Reign of King Pharamond and Ending with the Reign of King Henry the Fourth: Containing Both the Civil and the Ecclesiastical Transactions of That Kingdom. Translated by John Bulteel. London: Printed by T.N. for Thomas Basset, 1982. January 2007. Accessed July 16, 2019. https://quod.lib.umich.edu/e/eebo/A70580.0001.001/1:5?rgn=div1;view=fulltext


Millar, Rupert. “Beer Saint’s Day: Arnold Of Soissons.” The Drinks Business. 2015. Accessed August 4, 2020. https://www.thedrinksbusiness.com/2015/08/beer-saints-day-arnold-of-soissons/


Millar, Rupert. “Beer Saint’s Day: Arnulf Of Metz.” The Drinks Business. 2016. Accessed August 4, 2020. https://www.thedrinksbusiness.com/2016/07/beer-saints-day-arnulf-of-metz/


Naidos, Michael. “Perceptions of the Past in Merovingian Historiography, The Case of Gregory of Tours' Historia Francorum.” Revista Roda Da Fortuna 4, no. 2 (May 30, 2016): 70–89. https://www.academia.edu/25728617/Perceptions_of_the_Past_in_Merovingian_Historiography_The_case_of_Gregory_of_Tours_Historia_Francorum


O’Callaghan, Joseph F. A History of Medieval Spain. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press, 1994. https://books.google.com/books?id=yA3p6v3UxyIC&pg=PA41#v=onepage&q&f=false


Olson, Lynette. The Early Middle Ages: The Birth of Europe. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.


Oman, Charles. Dark Ages 476-918. London: Rivingtons, 1908. https://books.google.com/books?id=PDkNAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

Oman, Charles. The Art of War in the Middle Ages, A.D. 378-1515 (version The Project Gutenberg eBook). Oxford: Horace Hart, 1885. https://www.gutenberg.org/files/44308/44308-h/44308-h.htm


Palmer, Trevor. Writers and Re-Writers of First Millennium History. Society for Interdisciplinary Studies, 2019. https://www.academia.edu/40939151/Writers_and_Re-Writers_of_First_Millennium_History


Perry, Walter C. The Franks, from Their First Appearance in History to the Death of King Pepin. London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans and Roberts, 1857. https://ia800205.us.archive.org/27/items/cu31924028133522/cu31924028133522.pdf


Pestano, Dane. "Clovis, King of the Franks - Towards a New Chronology." Academia.edu. 2015. Accessed July 12, 2019. https://www.academia.edu/27559301/Clovis_King_of_the_Franks_-_Towards_a_New_Chronology. Article is also available on the Dark Age History blog at http://darkagehistory.blogspot.com/2015/06/clovisking-of-frankstowards-new_9.html


Priscus. "Medieval Sourcebook: Priscus at the Court of Attila." Internet History Sourcebooks Project. Accessed July 18, 2019. https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/source/priscus1.asp


Procopius. "Medieval Sourcebook: Gaiseric: The Vandal Conquest of North Africa, 406 - 477 CE." Internet History Sourcebooks Project. Accessed August 25, 2019. https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/ancient/procopius-vandals.asp


Procopius. Procopius. Translated by H. B. Dewing. Vol. 5. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1962. https://eclass.uoa.gr/modules/document/file.php/SLAVSTUD182/Procopius Wars Books VII.36-VIII.pdf


Rabenstein, Katherine I. “Saint of the Day - September 7.” St. Patrick Catholic Church. Accessed January 9, 2020. http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/0907.shtml


Renard, Margot. “The Faces of History: The Imagined Portraits of the Merovingian Kings at Versailles (1837-1842).” Journal of Historical Fictions, 1, no. 1 (2017): 65-88. http://historicalfictionsjournal.org/pdf/JHF%202017-065.pdf


Riche, Pierre. The Carolingians: A Family Who Forged Europe. Translated by Michael I. Allen. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993. Accessed August 4, 2020.

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Tcjy7bCmFL0C&pg


Rickard, John. “Battle of Soissons, 486.” History of War. Accessed October 1, 2019. http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_soissons.html


Riddle, John M. A History of the Middle Ages, 300-1500. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008.


“Saint Cloud or Clodoald.” Lives of the Saints, September 7, Saint Cloud. Accessed January 9, 2020. https://web.archive.org/web/20070422181553/http://magnificat.ca/cal/engl/09-07.htm


Schaefer, Francis. “St. Arnulf of Metz.” 1907. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved August 4, 2020 from New Advent. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01752b.htm


Settipani, Christian. Les ancêtres de Charlemagne. Occasional Publications UPR, 2015. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=IFQ8DwAAQBAJ


Sexson, Isak M. C. “Carolingian Propaganda: Kingship by the Hand of God.” Pacific University Oregon, 2000. https://www.pacificu.edu/sites/default/files/documents/Isak%20Sexson.pdf


Shanzer, Danuta. “Dating the Baptism of Clovis: The Bishop of Vienne vs the Bishop of Tours.” Early Medieval Europe 7, no. 1 (2003): 29–57. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0254.00017. Also available at https://www.academia.edu/455620/Dating_the_Baptism_of_Clovis_the_Bishop_of_Vienne_Vs_the_Bishop_of_Tours


Shepherd, William R. "Growth of Frankish Power, 481-814." In Historical Atlas, 53. New York, NY: Barnes and Noble, 1929. 2008. Accessed June 22, 2019. https://www.pitt.edu/~medart/image/france/france-l-to-z/mapsfrance/sf053fra.jpg


Simon, Emily T. "Ancient Text Has Long and Dangerous Reach." Harvard Gazette. February 21, 2008. Accessed June 25, 2019. https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2008/02/ancient-text-has-long-and-dangerous-reach/


Smith, Adrian. “The ‘Prehistory’ of Gregory of Tours: An Analysis of Books I-IV of Gregory’s Histories.” White Rose eTheses Online, 2010. http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/2559/2/Resubmitted_Thesis_in_full_MPhil.pdf


“St. Genevieve.” Catholic Encyclopedia: St. Genevieve. Accessed December 22, 2019. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06413f.htm


“Syagrius, Le Vaincu De Soissons.” Les Merovingiens, February 15, 2004. http://chrisagde.free.fr/merovingiens/syagrius.htm


Tacitus. "Germania." Internet History Sourcebooks Project. Accessed June 21, 2019. https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/source/tacitus1.asp


Thunderworks. "Palace of Versailles: The Gallery of Battles." YouTube. August 22, 2015. Accessed June 27, 2019. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-LGXasQ7FVo


"Tomb of Childeric." Ancient Europe, 8000 B.C. to A.D. 1000: Encyclopedia of the Barbarian World. Encyclopedia.com. Accessed September 2, 2019. https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/tomb-childeric


van Egmond, Wolfert S. “Plectrudis.” Online Dictionary of Dutch Women. Huygens ING. Accessed May 21, 2021. http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/vrouwenlexicon/lemmata/data/Plectrudis/en


von Pflugk-Harttung, Julius Henry. A History of All Nations: The Early Middle Ages. Translated by John Henry Wright. Vol. 7. Philadelphia: Lea, 1905. https://books.google.com/books?id=bB46AQAAIAAJ&pg


Webster, Hutton. Early European History. New York: D.C. Heath & Co., 1917. https://www.academia.edu/36576188/Early_European_History_by_Hutton_Webster?email_work_card=title


Wells, Peter S. Barbarians to Angels: The Dark Ages Reconsidered. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2008.


Wemple, Suzanne F. Women in Frankish Society: Marriage and the Cloister, 500 to 900. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Pr., 1996. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=DLUzCwAAQBAJ


Widdowson, Marc. “Merovingian Partitions: a ‘Genealogical Charter’?” Early Medieval Europe 17, no. 1 (2009): 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0254.2009.00242.x


Williams, Hannah. “Saint Geneviève’s Miracles: Art and Religion in Eighteenth-Century Paris.” French History 30, no. 3 (October 2016): 322–53. https://doi.org/10.1093/fh/crv076


Williard, Hope. “Friendship and Diplomacy in the Histories of Gregory of Tours - The Merovingian Kingdoms and the Mediterranean World: Revisiting the Sources, 2019.” Academia.edu. Accessed September 24, 2019. https://www.academia.edu/38655461/Friendship_and_Diplomacy_in_the_Histories_of_Gregory_of_Tours

Wilson, Emily. “The rise of the Carolingians or the decline of the Merovingians?” Access: History, 2, no. 1. (2003): 5-22. http://www.uq.edu.au/access_history/two-one/merovingians.pdf


Wood, Ian N. The Merovingian Kingdoms, 450-751. London: Routledge, 2014. https://books.google.com/books?id=f_PgAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA33&dq=isbn:9780582493728


Wright, Thomas. The History of France From the Earliest Period to the Present Time. London and New York: London Printing and Publishing Co., 1856. https://books.google.com/books?id=ITMOAAAAQAAJ&pg


Wyatt, Thomas. History of the Kings of France. Philadelphia, PA: Carey and Hart, 1846. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=9XPuySCdJDIC&pg=PA35&lpg=PA35&dq


Wyman, Patrick. "The Three Transformations of Roman Gaul." The Fall of Rome Podcast. October 20, 2016. Accessed June 27, 2017. https://wondery.com/shows/the-fall-of-rome-podcast/

Recent Posts

See All